5. Progress to date

- Let me conclude by just saying, you know, where are we to date? And this is, next few slides are from the Global CCS Institute and data they've compiled. It's a study put out earlier this year, encapsulating what had been happening up through 2020, and you can CCS projects all around the world, either ongoing, commercial facilities or places that are currently being investigated as a potential future sites. All good. If we start looking at this in more detail, what the CCS Institute has shown is, here are the various sort of rows on this diagram are the sources of CO two. The largest sources of course are coming from CO two, being sat, you know, separated from natural gas production, but there are a lot of power generation from coal. For example, chemical processes. Cement is a huge producer of, of CO two is a cement plant in the Netherlands that produces 40 million tons per year. One cement plant producing so much CO two it's equal to the amount currently being injected in all of the ongoing projects right now. And the blue here is showing projects that are, are, are currently in the pipeline and being carried out. But if every one of these blue projects comes to pass, in 2030, we'll be injecting about 175 million tons per year. That's far short of a gigaton. And so you can look at this as sort of a gap between what's actually happening, happening with ongoing projects, happening with the pipeline of projects that are coming along in where, you know, the, the, the global community that is looking to CCS to play a major role in decarbonization is expecting, and that's where this number I used at the beginning of, of 70 to a hundred new projects per year have to start coming on board and we have to be starting this process in order to get anywhere close to a gigaton per year. The gap is, you know, 600 billion tons. I I'd like to thank SEG and the SEG foundation and the financial support of, of Shell for the series and making this talk possible. I'd like to thank my former PhD students and postdocs at Stanford who did the majority of the work I, I, I presented and I'd like to especially thank John for lead Nicole and his research group for allowing me to show some of their results prior to publication. You know, I've had about a, a 50 year engagement with, with SEJ something I I'm very proud of. You know, it's 14,000 members from around the world. It's 200 plus student chapters are really quite remarkable and it's, it's a remarkable organization and I'm extremely pleased that it is offering this series and giving me the opportunity to make these, these issues known to you. And with that I'll, I'll I'll thank you. And I'll be happy to answer the questions and the as, as, as time best allows, they will provide me some of your questions via email. And I may respond to some of the questions we don't get to over the next few days and weeks. So I'll stop there. Thank you for your attention. And I'm happy to answer your questions.